Bleeding in the vitreous area usually occurs suddenly and without pain. Symptoms range from the sudden appearance of spots or suspended particles in the vision, to partial or even complete loss of vision.
Some patients find that vision tends to be worse in the morning and perceive mild improvement during the day.
Diagnosis is made through clinical examination. In case of inability to assess the condition of the retina through it, an ultrasound should be performed to exclude retinal detachment, tumor, etc.
The main causes of vitreous bleeding:
Damage to retinal blood vessels due to diabetes mellitus, retinal vein occlusion, age related macular degeneration, macroaneurysm and other less frequently occurring diseases.
Retinal detachment or posterior vitreous detachment causing a tear the retina.
Inoperative or postoperative in the context of cataract surgery, glaucoma and so on.
Valsalva mechanism following an increase in central venous pressure due to weightlifting, coughing etc.
If the retina is intact it is recommended to wait until is absorbed which usually happens within a few weeks. If the bleeding relapses or does not resorb within four weeks, the possibility of surgical removal through vitrectomy is considered.
In any case, the cause should be also treated, when possible, in addition to waiting or surgical removal.